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Beta Code to/from UTF-8 Unicode Conversion Package


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The Unibetacode package contains programs to convert between the Beta Code encoding method for polytonic Greek and UTF-8 Unicode. These programs are designed to accept textual input from the Beta Code specification as implemented by the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) Project at the University of California, Irvine, and also by the Perseus Project of Tufts University. The programs only handle character encodings, not the formatting codes (superscripts, font size changes, etc.) of the full TLG Beta Code specification.

The focus of Beta Code is an ASCII encoding of classical Greek, and thus the default encoding of these programs is ASCII Beta Code for conversion to Greek UTF-8 Unicode. This package can be of use to those wishing to type polytonic Greek who are already good typists of ASCII characters, as well as to those wishing to convert documents in the TLG, Perseus Project, or similar corpus from Beta Code to Unicode.

There are three programs in this package:

The source package contains examples in the "examples" directory, which are also used to test the programs once installed on a system. Three short examples appear below.

Example — Interactive Terminal Input

The commands can be run interactively at a terminal. In the example below, the first line after invoking beta2uni at a terminal shell prompt ("") is the user's typed Beta Code input and the second line is the generated polytonic Greek, which is output directly to the terminal. End the input by typing Control-D on a line by itself, followed by the Enter key. The result can be copied and pasted into a document.

     $ beta2uni
     *(o bi/os braxu/s h( de\ te/xnh makrh/
     Ὁ βίος βραχύς ἡ δὲ τέχνη μακρή
     ^D
     $

      Life [is] short and art long. —Hippocrates

The input ASCII Beta Code letters are lowercase in this example, following the convention of the Perseus Project. Had uppercase letters been used instead (as is the convention of the TLG Project), the Greek output would have been identical.

An asterisk ('*') denotes an uppercase Greek letter; if present, it always appears first, before the letter and any associated breathing marks and accents. Breathing marks and then accents precede an associated uppercase letter but follow after an associated lowercase letter, reflecting the pre-Unicode typesetting conventions for printed Greek. An iota subscript ('|') associated with a long vowel always appears last after the vowel, as seen in the next example, whether the associated vowel is uppercase or lowercase.

Example — Genesis 1:1

A '&' switches to Latin mode and a '$' switches back to the default Greek mode.

Beta Code Encoding Input to beta2uni:

     &Koine Greek (Septuagint):$
     *)en a)rxh=| e)poi/hsen o( *qeo\s to\n ou)rano\n kai\ th\n gh=n.

UTF-8 Unicode Output from beta2uni:

     Koine Greek (Septuagint):
     Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν.

Note the context-dependent conversion of the ASCII letter 's' in the Beta Code input to small medial (middle) sigma or small final sigma in the UTF-8 Unicode output.

Example — Byzantine Musical Symbols

The TLG Beta Code specification includes special numeric codes in the range "#2000" through "#2245" that map to Unicode Supplementary Multilingual Plane Byzantine Musical Symbols, as just one example of its special numeric codes. The unibetaprep program converts those codes to the Unicode extension to Beta Code that is unique to this Unibetacode package. However, Unicode has become the standard for exchange of textual information. There is no corresponding program to convert a file back to using the special numeric codes of the TLG Beta Code specification, and there are no plans to create such a program.

TLG-specific Special Numeric Code Input to unibetaprep:

     #2070 &(U+1D046)$ *)/ison
     #2071 &(U+1D047)$ *)oli/gon
     #2078 &(U+1D04E)$ *kenth/mata
     #2073 &(U+1D049)$ *petasth/
     #2081 &(U+1D051)$ *)apo/strofos

Unibetacode's Unicode Extension to Beta Code; Output from unibetaprep, Input to beta2uni:

     {\u1D046} &(U+1D046)$ *)/ison
     {\u1D047} &(U+1D047)$ *)oli/gon
     {\u1D04E} &(U+1D04E)$ *kenth/mata
     {\u1D049} &(U+1D049)$ *petasth/
     {\u1D051} &(U+1D051)$ *)apo/strofos

Beta Code Conversion to UTF-8 Unicode; Output from beta2uni:

     𝁆 (U+1D046) Ἴσον
     𝁇 (U+1D047) Ὀλίγον
     𝁎 (U+1D04E) Κεντήματα
     𝁉 (U+1D049) Πεταστή
     𝁑 (U+1D051) Ἀπόστροφος

Reference Documents

Unix-style man (manual) pages are listed below. The unibetacode man page describes the Beta Code format that these utilities implement, so read it first. Examples in the "examples" directory in the source code demonstrate practical use.

More information is available in the following documents:

The source tarball and GnuPG signature file can be downloaded at these links:

Installing Unibetacode

To install the Unibetacode package on a system with a Unix-style command line interface (GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, Cygwin, etc.), type these commands in a terminal window:

     ./configure
     make
     make check
     make install
     make clean

The "make check" command will run five tests using sample text files that are in the "examples" directory.

The "make install" command might need to be run as "sudo make install" on your system. By default, the programs will be installed in "/usr/local/bin" and the man (manual) pages will be installed in "/usr/local/share/man/man1" and "/usr/local/share/man/man5".

License

The software on this site, unless otherwise noted, is released under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) version 2.0, or (at your option) a later version.

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